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SEX DIFFERENCES IN CONCUSSION OUTCOMES
Sport-related concussion is a growing health concern, particularly in younger, at-risk athletic populations. Between 1.6 and 3.8 million sport- and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries occur annually in the U.S. Recently, there has been a focus on sex differences in concussion and related outcomes. Research has suggested that females are at higher risk for concussion than males and may take longer to recovery from a concussion compare to males. Specifically, female athletes have reported more total symptoms, vestibular and ocular-motor deficits and neurocognitive impairments following a sport-related concussion. Our research focuses on sex differences in concussion outcomes among high school and collegiate athletes. 
RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CONCUSSION OUTCOMES
Identifying athletes who are at risk for sport-related concussion and/or prolonged recovery is important for informing prevention efforts and management approaches. In addition, clinicians who are aware of factors that influence sport-related concussion risk and recovery are more informed and better prepared to discuss prognosis and expectations for recovery with the injured athlete. Researchers have suggested that the concussion history and age are association with future risk of injury and prolonged recovery. Our research examines neurocognitive deficits and symptom reports that predict protracted recovery pediatric population and athletes with multiple concussions.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS RELATED TO CONCUSSION OUTCOMES
Mood disturbances have been suggested to be a potential modifying factor for concussed athletes. Previously, we have documented depression in high school athletes up to 14 days post-injury and anxiety in collegiate athletes. Baseline depression was the strongest predictor of post-concussion depression and anxiety. These results call for programs to effectively address both psychological predictors and consequences of concussions. Therefore, our research focuses on psychosocial factors that may influence recovery from a sports-related concussion.
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SPORT-RELATED CONCUSSION
In collegiate and high school athletics, the participation of female athletes has increased dramatically since the implementation of Title IX as part of the Equality in Education Act of 1972. Due to this increase in sport participation, it is expected that the annual incidence of sport-related concussion will continue to rise. Our research suggests that female concussed athletes participating in comparable sports (i.e., soccer, basketball) have a higher injury rate than male concussed athletes. Our research will continue to focus on sport-related concussion injury rates at the youth, high school and collegiate levels.