Education Policy Center
Measurement of Mathematics Content, Instructional Practices, and Textbook Use in K-12 Mathematics Classrooms: An Annotated Bibliography
Leland S. Cogan
Michigan State University
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DGE-1445583. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
The purpose of this annotated bibliography was to inform an effort to create instruments that would yield indicators of the extent to which the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics or similar standards are implemented in classroom instruction. Reviewed here are instruments reflecting: coverage of classroom content, use of specific instructional practices, and use of textbooks in K-12 mathematics classrooms in the United States.
To identify articles within the parameters, we used the search criteria “mathematics” paired with “instructional practice,” “content,” “curriculum,” or “textbook.” Additional searches paired the terms “reform,” “implementation,” “application,” “measuring,” and “common core,” as well as different variants, with “mathematics”. This extensive search, which was limited to articles in English, yielded 196 articles. We also consulted the references found in these articles.
Of the 196 articles identified in the extensive search, 63 were considered relevant for our interest in classroom content coverage. These relevant articles focused on analyzing and capturing the implementation of mathematics curriculum content, instructional practices, and textbook use. Within this collection of articles, this review utilizes 20 papers that developed instruments to capture one or more of these three aspects of instruction.
The articles reviewed included use of a variety of statistical instruments including cross-national surveys implemented by international organizations (e.g., PISA, TIMSS and TALIS), national evaluations (e.g., the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)), and state-level evaluations in the United States. Although many papers based on these large studies are included in the references, a summary of each one was deemed beyond the scope of this project.
The relevant literature covers a wide variety of education indicators. There were, however, a number of performance measures which were common among the literature. Recurrent performance measures include analysis of the depth of specific curricular reforms, time spent on each practice, instrument validity and reliability, teacher interpretation of standards, appraisal of teacher beliefs, textbook alignment with standards, and teacher preparation.
While we identified a wide variety of instruments implemented throughout the relevant articles, a small number were used most frequently. These instruments included surveys (of teachers, principals, and students), in-depth interviews (of teachers, textbook authors, and math specialists), classroom observations, teacher logs, vignette-based measures, and textbook examinations.
Comprehensive Assessments of Classroom Content, Instructional Practices, and Use of Textbooks
The literature review revealed that teacher surveys are the most commonly applied method to capture mathematics classroom content, instructional practices, and use of textbooks. We also found that almost half of the studies reviewed have simultaneous assessment of classroom content, instructional practices, and/or use of textbooks.
Among the most comprehensive work we found is a series of papers and reports evaluating the implementation of curricular reform. One of the most thorough reports on teacher content, practices, and use of textbooks is Porter, Kirst, Osthoff, Smithson, and Schneider’s (1993) report “Reform up Close: An Analysis of High School Mathematics and Science Classrooms.” The study assessed curriculum implementation within six states, 12 districts, and 18 schools. Instruments applied included teacher questionnaires; and interviews with principals, district administrators and agency administrators. These instruments collected detailed information regarding curriculum implementation at the classroom level. For example, one survey question inquired about time and depth of coverage devoted to 80 specific mathematics topics.
Another influential study, “Validating National Curriculum Indicators,” was part of the Rand Corporation project (Burstein et al., 1995). This study aimed to improve the quality of information collected on school curriculum. The teacher survey that was implemented collected detailed information regarding math content, teaching practices, and textbook use. The survey was complemented with teacher logs and an evaluation of assignments and exams.
The “Study of Instructional Improvement” conducted by the University of Michigan and Consortium for Policy Research of Education was a large scale longitudinal study of instructional improvement. As part of this project several journal articles and working papers have been published, including Rowan, Harrison, and Hayes, (2004) and Hill (2005). Ball, Cohen, and Rowan (2010) describes the mathematics curriculum and teaching practices in a sample of high-poverty elementary schools that participated in three of the most widely implemented school reform programs in the United States: Accelerated Schools Program, America’s Choice, and Success for All. The study evaluated the content coverage and teaching practices within and among 53 schools using instructional logs.
Also stemming from the “Study of Instructional Improvement”, Hill (2005) examined a set of terms often found on survey instruments describing mathematical content. To do so, she used a field pilot of an elementary mathematics daily log to examine terms such as “geometry,” “number patterns,” and “ordering fractions” for rates of agreement and disagreement between teachers and observers. . The study assessed when and how disagreements occurred through the use of interviews and written observations.
Swanson and Stevenson (2002) presented results of a teacher survey focused on classroom content and practices in states that participated in the NAEP. The study examined if there was an association between the structure of the national standards movement and patterns of state-level policy activism.
Porter, Smithson, Blank, & Zeidner (2007) developed procedures to investigate the agreement between content standards, tests, textbooks, and even classroom instruction as experienced by teachers and students. The purpose was to define and illustrate innovative uses of tools, content maps, and a quantitative index of the degree of agreement. This research drew on data from Porter, Blank, Smithson, and Osthoff (2005) that implemented a place-based randomized trial to test the effects on instructional practices of mathematics and science in a professional development program in 50 U.S. middle schools within five large urban districts. They concluded that “a quantitative measure of alignment can be defined at the individual teacher level and used as an important variable in research on teaching” (Porter et al., 2007, p. 46).
Gimbert, Bol, and Wallace (2007) analyzed the influence of traditional and alternative teacher preparation programs on student achievement and instruction in urban secondary schools. They utilized a mixed-method comparative design to determine if teacher preparation influences the implementation of the process standards established by the NCTM. This study used classroom observations to determine the extent to which the teachers implemented NCTM process and content standards.
Blank, Porter, and Smithson (2001) was part of a project to develop and test Surveys of Enacted Curriculum in mathematics and science. The survey was designed to address broad questions about standards-based reform by testing a survey approach to analyzing the enacted curriculum in mathematics and science. More than 600 teachers across the 11 participating states completed self-report surveys about the subject content and the instructional practices used in their classes.
Gagnon, and Maccini (2007) assessed teachers’ definition of math, familiarity with the course topics, effectiveness of methods courses, preparation to use and frequency of use of effective instructional strategies, and factors contributing to the use of instructional strategies. They used mail-based surveys of special and general education high school teachers that teach math to students with emotional and behavior disorders and learning disabilities. This paper emphasized the need for better preparation for instructional strategies that are consistent with the goals of the NTCM standards and empirically-validated teaching practices (Gagnon & Maccini, 2007).
McCaffrey et al. (2001) examined how student achievement is related to the degree to which teachers' use of instructional practices align with reforms. The study drew on findings from teacher surveys and components of the Stanford achievement test for tenth grade students. The analysis controlled for student background characteristics and past achievement. Particular focus was placed on how curriculum reforms might influence the relationship between instructional practices and student outcomes. Results from all sites were combined to produce a single coefficient estimate for instructional practices.
Lane and Parke (2008) examined the extent to which mathematics classroom activities in Maryland were aligned with state learning outcomes and the Maryland School Performance Assessment Program. The authors collected information on activities related to instruction, assessment, and test-preparation from a statewide stratified random sample of teachers. Seven types of teachers’ classroom activities were analyzed: (1) mathematics process outcomes; (2) mathematics content outcomes; (3) student response types; (4) interpretation of charts, tables, and graphs; (5) use of manipulatives and calculators; (6) integration with other subject areas; and (7) overall agreement with the Maryland State Performance Assessment Program. Most classroom activities were aligned with aspects of state assessment and standards.
Stecher et al. (2006) used vignette-based measures of reform-oriented instruction, which is one aspect of mathematics instructional practice. Teachers read contextualized descriptions of teaching practices that varied in terms of reform-oriented instruction, and then rated the degree to which the options correspond to their own likely behaviors.
Ross, McDougall, Hogaboam-Gray, and LeSage (2003) evaluated instruments that measure teachers' instructional practice. To examine the extent to which teachers implement mathematics education reforms, they developed a twenty-item survey based on nine dimensions of standards-based teaching. They provide evidence of the reliability and validity of the instrument using correlations of survey scores with a mandated performance assessment in Grade 6 mathematics and classroom observations of a small sample of teachers. The study also demonstrated that teachers who were similar in their claims about using a standards-based text series differed in how they used the text in the classroom in ways predicted by the survey. Similarly, Mayer (1999) examined the reliability and validity of using survey instruments to capture instructional practices. The study inspected if the portion of time devoted to established practices in algebra classes were consistent with NCTM professional standards.
Spillane and Zeuli (1999) investigated teacher math practices in the context of the current reform effort in the United States. The study developed a conceptual framework for examining reform proposals “in terms of the intersection of classroom tasks and discourse patterns with principled and procedural mathematical knowledge” (p. 1). The student identified which teacher practices were most responsive to reform through use of classroom observation and teacher interviews.
Hamilton et al. (2003) analyzed the relationship between academic achievement and classroom practices established by the National Science Foundation's Systemic Initiatives (SI) program. The study collected data from eleven SI sites and investigated relationships at the site level and pooled across sites using a planned meta-analytic approach. The study found a small but consistent positive relationship between teachers' reported use of standards-based instruction and student achievement.
Jitendra et al. (2005) examined the extent to which teaching the recommended methods for problem-solving recommended in mathematic textbooks adhered to the NCTM standards and instructional design criteria. They analyzed lessons on addition and subtraction on five textbooks at the third grade level that break “each lesson in six parts, including preview, warm-up/introduction, teach, practice, assess, and review” for evaluating the standards (p. 322). They found great discrepancy across textbooks in meeting the standards.
We reviewed several journal articles that evaluated changes in teaching practices based on recent curricular reforms in countries beyond the United States. Ampadu (2014) examined the impacts of a mathematics curriculum introduced in Ghana in 2007. This reform aimed to shift from a teacher-centered approach to more student-centered style that emphasized participatory teaching and learning. Using a semi-structured questionnaire for teachers and class observations, the study investigated teacher beliefs about their teaching, differences between these beliefs and curriculum requirements, and the relationship between beliefs and teaching practices. The paper found that “the movement towards a more constructivist approach as outlined in the curriculum was not fully evident in most of the classrooms observed” (p. 79).
Bobis and Anderson (2006) evaluated the implementation of reform-oriented approaches promoted through the Working Mathematically curriculum for primary school children in New South Wales, Australia. Using teacher surveys (based on Ross, et al., 2003), they examined which reform-oriented teaching practices primary school teachers reported using and the particular teaching practices used for each of the processes of Working Mathematically. The study also identified the knowledge and beliefs that were associated with teachers who successfully implement Working Mathematically. Following a similar line of research, Cavanagh (2006) evaluated the implementation of the new reform-oriented syllabus in secondary schools in New South Wales.
Huntley (2009) described different methods of measuring curriculum implementation. The study used the Concerned-Based Adoption Model, “premised on the notion that implementation of an innovation (such as a new textbook) can take on many different operational forms” (p. 357). An example of a tool is teachers using a textbook's table of contents to identify chapters, units, or topics they plan to teach during the academic year.
Ball, D., Cohen, D. K., & Rowan, B. (2010). Cohort A math logs – 1st Grade. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi: 10.3886/icpsr26282
Blank, R. K., Porter, A., Smithson, J. (2001). New tools for analyzing teaching, curriculum and standards in mathematics & science: Results from Survey of Enacted Curriculum Project. Final report. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.
Bobis, J., & Anderson, J. (2006, Jul 16-21). Reform-oriented teaching practices and the influence of school context. Paper presented at the 30th Conference of the International-Group-for-the-Psychology-of-Mathematics-Education, Prague, Czech Republic.
Burstein, L., McDonnell, L. M., Van Winkle, J., Ormseth, T. H., Mirocha, J. & Guiton, G. (1995). Validating national curriculum indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Cavanagh, M. (2006, Jul 16-21). Implementing a reform-oriented mathematics syllabus: A survey of secondary teachers. Paper presented at the 30th Conference of the International-Group-for-the-Psychology-of-Mathematics-Education, Charles Univ, Prague, Czech Republic.
Gimbert, B., Bol, L., & Wallace, D. (2007). The influence of teacher preparation on student achievement and the application of national standards by teachers of mathematics in urban secondary schools. Education and Urban Society, 40(1), 91–117. doi: 10.1177/0013124507303993
Hamilton, L. S., McCaffrey, D. F., Stecher, B. M., Klein, S. P., Robyn, A., & Bugliari, D. (2003). Studying large-scale reforms of instructional practice: An example from mathematics and science. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(1), 1–29. doi: 10.3102/01623737025001001
Hill, H. C. (2005). Content across communities: Validating measures of elementary mathematics instruction. Educational Policy, 19(3), 447–475. doi: 10.1177/0895904808276142
Huntley, M. A. (2009). Measuring curriculum implementation. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 40(4), 355–362.
Jitendra, A. K., Griffin, C., Deatline-Buchman, A., Dipipi-Hoy, C., Sczesniak, E., Sokol, N. G., & Xin, Y. P. (2005). Adherence to mathematics professional standards and instructional design criteria for problem-solving in mathematics. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 319–337.
Mayer, D. P. (1999). Measuring instructional practice: Can policymakers trust survey data? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 21(1), 29–45. doi: 10.2307/1164545
McCaffrey, D. F., Hamilton, L. S., Stecher, B. M., Klein, S. P., Bugliari, D., & Robyn, A. (2001). Interactions among instructional practices, curriculum, and student achievement: The case of standards-based high school mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 32(5), 493–517. doi: 10.2307/749803
Lane, S., & Parke, C. (2008). Examining alignment between state performance assessment and mathematics classroom activities. The Journal of Educational Research, 101(3), 132–147. doi: 10.3200/JOER.101.3.132-147
Porter, A. C., Kirst, M. W., Osthoff, E. J., Smithson, J. L., & Schneider, S. A. (1993). Reform up close: An analysis of high school mathematics and science classrooms. Final Report.Wisconsin Center for Education Research, School of Education, University of Wisconsin.
Porter, A. C., Smithson, J., Blank, R., & Zeidner, T. (2007). Alignment as a teacher variable. Applied Measurement in Education, 20(1), 27–51. doi: 10.1207/s15324818ame2001_3
Rowan, B., Harrison, D. M., & Hayes, A. (2004). Using instructional logs to study mathematics curriculum and teaching in the early grades. Elementary School Journal, 105(1), 103–127. doi: 10.1086/428812
Ross, J. A., McDougall, D., Hogaboam-Gray, A., & LeSage, A. (2003). A survey measuring elementary teachers' implementation of standards-based mathematics teaching. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 34(4), 344–363.
Spillane, J. P., & Zeuli, J. S. (1999). Reform and teaching: Exploring patterns of practice in the context of national and state mathematics reforms. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 21(1), 1–27.
Stecher, B., Le, V.-N., Hamilton, L., Ryan, G., Robyn, A., & Lockwood, J. R. (2006). Using structured classroom vignettes to measure instructional practices in mathematics. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 28(2), 101–130. doi: 10.3102/01623737028002101
Swanson, C. B., & Stevenson, D. L. (2002). Standards-based reform in practice: Evidence on state policy and classroom instruction from the NAEP state assessments. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(1), 1–27. doi: 10.3102/01623737024001001
Altundag, R., Yildiz, C., Kogce, D., & Aydin, M. (2009). The new primary education mathematics curriculu. In H. Uzunboylu & N. Cavus (Eds.), World Conference on Educational Sciences - New Trends and Issues in Educational Sciences (Vol. 1, pp. 464–468). Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc.
Ampadu, E. (2014). Implementing a new mathematics curriculum: Mathematics teachers’ beliefs and practices. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 3(1). doi: 10.5861/ijrse.2013.562
Archer, L., DeWitt, J., & Dillon, J. (2014). 'It didn't really change my opinion': Exploring what works, what doesn't and why in a school science, technology, engineering and mathematics careers intervention. Research in Science & Technological Education, 32(1), 35–55. doi:10.1080/02635143.2013.865601
Baker, S., Gersten, R., Dimino, J. A., & Griffiths, R. (2004). The sustained use of research-based instructional practice - A case study of peer-assisted learning strategies in mathematics. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 5–24. doi: 10.1177/07419325040250010301
Baki, A., & Cakiroglu, U. (2010). Learning objects in high school mathematics classrooms: Implementation and evaluation. Computers & Education, 55(4), 1459–1469. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2010.06.009
Ball, D. L., & Rowan, B. (2004). Introducation: Measuring instruction. Elementary School Journal, 105(1), 3–10.
Bayazit, I. (2013). Quality Of the tasks in the new Turkish elementary mathematics textbooks: The case of proportional reasoning. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 11(3), 651–682. doi: 10.1007/s10763-012-9358-8
Bowie, L. (2013). The interplay of the social, pedagogical and mathematics in a mathematics textbook. Proceedings of the Seventh International Mathematics Education and Society Conference (Vols. 1–2, 243–252).
Carnine, D. (1997). Instructional design in mathematics for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(2), 130–141.
Cobb, P., & Jackson, K. (2011). Assessing the quality of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Educational Researcher, 40(4), 183–185. doi: 10.3102/0013189x11409928
Cohen, D. K., & Hill, H. C. (2000). Instructional policy and classroom performance: The mathematics reform in California. Teachers College Record, 102(2), 294–343. doi: 10.1111/0161-4681.00057
Cogan, L. S., Schmidt, W. H., & Wiley, D. E. (2001). Who takes what math and in which track? Using TIMSS to characterize US students' eighth-grade mathematics learning opportunities. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23(4), 323–341. doi: 10.3102/01623737023004323
Desimone, L. M., Smith, T. M., & Phillips, K. J. R. (2007). Does policy influence mathematics and science teachers' participation in professional development? Teachers College Record, 109(5), 1086–1122.
Drageset, O. G. (2014). Redirecting, progressing, and focusing actions-a framework for describing how teachers use students' comments to work with mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 85(2), 281–304. doi: 10.1007/s10649-013-9515-1
Erdogan, A. (2012). Preservice mathematics teachers' conceptions of and approaches to learning: A phenomenographic study. Energy Education Science and Technology Part B-Social and Educational Studies, 4(1), 21–30.
Entwisle, D. R., & Alexander, K. L. (1990). Beginning school math competence - Minority and majority comparisons. Child Development, 61(2), 454–471. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb02792.x
Forman, E. A., Larreamendy-Joerns, J., Stein, M. K., & Brown, C. A. (1998). “You're going to want to find out which and prove it": Collective argumentation in a mathematics classroom. Learning and Instruction, 8(6), 527–548. doi: 10.1016/s0959-4752(98)00033-4
Frykholm, J. A. (1996). Pre-service teachers in mathematics: Struggling with the standards. Teaching and Teacher Education, 12(6), 665–681. doi: 10.1016/s0742-051x(96)00010-8
Gagnon, J. C., & Maccin, P. (2007). Teacher-reported use of empirically validated and standards-based instructional approaches in secondary mathematics. Remedial and Special Education, 28(1), 43–56. doi:10.1177/07419325070280010501
Gill, M. G., & Boote, D. (2012). Classroom culture, mathematics culture, and the failures of reform: The need for a collective view of culture. Teachers College Record, 114(12), 1–45.
Grant, S. G., Peterson, P. L., & ShojgreenDowner, A. (1996). Learning to teach mathematics in the context of systemic reform. American Educational Research Journal, 33(2), 509–541.
Gravemeijer, K. P. E. (2014). Transforming mathematics education: The role of textbooks and teachers. In Y. Li, E. A. Silver, & S. Li (Eds.), Transforming mathematics instruction: Multiple approaches and practices (pp. 153–172). Switzerland: Springer.
Grouws, D. A., Tarr, J. E., Chavez, O., Sears, R., Soria, V. M., & Taylan, R. D. (2013). Curriculum and implementation effects on high school students' mathematics learning from curricula representing subject-specific and integrated content organizations. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 44(2), 416–463.
Harel, G., Fuller, E., & Soto, O. D. (2014). DNR-Based instruction in mathematics: Determinants of a DNR expert's teaching. In Y. Li, E. A. Silver, & S. Li (Eds.), Transforming mathematics instruction: Multiple approaches and practices (pp. 413–437). Switzerland: Springer.
Herbel-Eisenmann, B. A. (2007). From intended curriculum to written curriculum: Examining the "voice" of a mathematics textbook. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 38(4), 344–369.
Hill, H. C., Rowan, B., & Ball, D. L. (2005). Effects of teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 42(2), 371–406. doi:10.3102/00028312042002371
Hill, H., Schilling, S., & Ball, D. (2004). Developing measures of teachers’ mathematics knowledge for teaching. The Elementary School Journal, 105(1), 11–30. doi:10.1086/428763
Hsu, H.-Y., & Silver, E. A. (2014). Cognitive complexity of mathematics instructional tasks in a Taiwanese classroom: An examination of task sources. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 45(4), 460–496.
Jitendra, A. K., Sczesniak, E., & Deatline-Buchman, A. (2005). An exploratory validation of curriculum-based mathematical word problem-solving tasks as indicators of mathematics proficiency for third graders. School Psychology Review, 34(3), 358–371.
Kloosterman, P. (2003). Beliefs about mathematics and mathematics learning in the secondary school: Measurement and implications for motivation. Beliefs: A Hidden Variable in Mathematics Education, 31, 247–269.
Koh, C., & Boey, K. L. (2010). Mathematics pre-service teachers' knowledge and application of general pedagogy: A Singapore study. 3rd International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (Iceri2010), 4369–4376.
Konur, K. (2013). Study of the thoughts of math teachers about the content of secondary education math class. 3rd World Conference on Learning, Teaching and Educational Leadership, 93, 2152–2156. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.181
Krauss, S., Brunner, M., Kunter, M., Baumert, J., Blum, W., Neubrand, M., & Jordan, A. (2008). Pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of secondary mathematics teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3), 716–725. doi: 10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1996
Manouchehri, A., & Goodman, T. (1998). Mathematics curriculum reform and teachers: Understanding the connections. Journal of Educational Research, 92(1), 27–41.
Marshall, J. C., Horton, R., Igo, B. L., & Switzer, D. M. (2009). K-12 science and mathematics teachers’ beliefs about and use of inquiry in the classroom. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 7(3), 575–596. doi: 10.1007/s10763-007-9122-7
Mosvold, R. (2010). Teachers use of projects and textbook tasks to connect mathematics with everyday life. In B. Sriraman, C. Bergsten, S. Goodchild, G. Palsdottir, B.D. Søndergaard, & L. Haapasalo (Eds.), The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education (pp. 169–180). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Nah, K.-O. (2011). A comparative study of mathematics education practices in English and Korean preschools focusing on implementation of curriculum content. Kedi Journal of Educational Policy, 8(1), 81–98.
Obara, S., & Sloan, M. (2010). Classroom experiences with new curriculum materials during the implementation of performance standards in mathematics: A case study of teachers coping with change. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 8(2), 349–372.
Ottmar, E. R., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Berry, R. Q., & Larsen, R. A. (2013). Does the responsive classroom approach affect the use of standards-based mathematics teaching practices? Results from a randomized controlled trial. Elementary School Journal, 113(3), 434–457.
Polikoff, M. S. (2012). The association of state policy attributes with teachers’ instructional alignment. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(3), 278–294. doi:10.3102/0162373711431302
Porter, A. C., Blank, R. K., Smithson, J. L., & Osthoff, E. (2005). Place-based randomized trials to test the effects on instructional practices of a mathematics/dcience professional development program for teachers. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 599, 147–175. doi: 10.1177/0002716205274743
Schmidt, W. H., & Houang, R. T. (2012). Curricular coherence and the common core state standards for mathematics. Educational Researcher, 41(8), 294–308.
Woolard, J. C. (2013). Prelude to the Common Core: Internationally benchmarking a state's math standards. Educational Policy, 27(4), 615–644. doi: 10.1177/0895904811429287
Additional Reference List
Abedi, J., & Herman, J. (2010). Assessing English Language Learners' Opportunity to Learn Mathematics: Issues and Limitations. Teachers College Record, 112(3), 723-746.
Aldous, C. M. (2005). Mathematics as an indicator of molecular students performance in processes of science. Febs Journal, 272, 66-66.
Alisinanoglu, F., Guven, G., & Kesicioglu, O. S. (2009). The analysis of preschool teacher candidates' attitudes about early mathematics education in the views of various variables. In H. Uzunboylu & N. Cavus (Eds.), World Conference on Educational Sciences - New Trends and Issues in Educational Sciences (Vol. 1, pp. 2197-2201).
Amador, J., & Lamberg, T. (2013). Learning trajectories, lesson planning, affordances, and constraints in the design and enactment of mathematics teaching. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 15(2), 146–170. doi: 10.1080/10986065.2013.770719
Anderman, E. M., Eccles, J. S., Yoon, K. S., Roeser, R., Wigfield, A., & Blumenfeld, P. (2001). Learning to value mathematics and reading: Relations to mastery and performance-oriented instructional practices. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26(1), 76–95. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1999.1043
Andersone, R., & Helmane, I. (2013). Citizenship education in the mathematics curriculum. Rural Environment. Education. Personality (Reep), 6, 173–178. Retrieved from http://llufb.llu.lv/conference/REEP/2013/Latvia-Univ-Agricult_REEP_2013_ISSN_2255-808X-173-178.pdf
Anugwo, M. N. (2013). Quality of science and mathematics textbooks, A dilemma to the progress of education in Africa. Procedings of the 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville, Spain, 3161–3165.
Axtell, P. K., McCallum, R. S., Bell, S. M., & Poncy, B. (2009). Developing math automaticity using a classwide fluency building procedure for middle school students: A preliminary study. Psychology in the Schools, 46(6), 526–538. doi: 10.1002/pits.20395
Baker, D., Knipe, H., Collins, J., Leon, J., Cummings, E., Blair, C., & Gamson, D. (2010). One hundred years of elementary school mathematics in the United States: A content analysis and cognitive assessment of textbooks from 1900 to 2000. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 41(4), 383–423.
Baki, A., Gokcek, T., & Charles, U. (2007). Elementary teachers' concerns about the new mathematics curriculum in Turkey. Paper presented at the International Symposium of Elementary Mathematics Teaching, Prague, Czech Republic.
Baloglu, M. (2010). An investigation of the validity and reliability of the adapted mathematics anxiety rating scale-short version (MARS-SV) among Turkish students. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 25(4), 507–518. doi: 10.1007/s10212-010-0029-2
Baloglu, M., & Balgalmis, E. (2010). The adaptation of the mathematics anxiety rating scale-elementary form into Turkish, language validity, and preliminary psychometric investigation. Kuram Ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 10(1), 101–110.
Battey, D. (2013). "Good" mathematics teaching for students of color and those in poverty: the importance of relational interactions within instruction. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 82(1), 125–144. doi: 10.1007/s10649-012-9412-z
Beilock, S. L., Gunderson, E. A., Ramirez, G., & Levine, S. C. (2010). Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(5), 1860–1863. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910967107
Berland, L., Steingut, R., & Ko, P. (2014). High school student perceptions of the utility of the engineering design process: Creating opportunities to engage in engineering practices and apply math and science content. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 23(6), 705–720. doi: 10.1007/s10956-014-9498-4
Bianchini, J. A., & Brenner, M. E. (2010). The role of induction in learning to teach toward equity: A study of beginning science and mathematics teachers. Science Education, 94(1), 164–195. doi: 10.1002/sce.20353
Bin Khairani, A. Z., & bin Ab Razak, N. (2010). Teaching efficacy of Universiti Sains Malaysia mathematics student teachers. Proceedings from the International Conference on Mathematics Education Research 2010, 8, 35–40. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.005
Bjarnadottir, K. (2006). From isolation and stagnation to 'modern' mathematics in Iceland: A reform or confusion? Paedagogica Historica, 42(4–5), 547–558. doi: 10.1080/00309230600806823
Borko, H., Mayfield, V., Marion, S., Flexer, R., & Cumbo, K. (1997). Teachers' developing ideas end practices about mathematics performance assessment: Successes, stumbling blocks, and implications for professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13(3), 259–278. doi: 10.1016/s0742-051x(96)00024-8
Boston, M. D., & Smith, M. S. (2009). Transforming secondary mathematics teaching: Increasing the cognitive demands of instructional tasks used in teachers' classrooms. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 40(2), 119–156.
Breigheith, M.& Kuncar, H.(2002). Mathematics and mathematics education. In S. Elaydi, S. K. Jain, M. Saleh, R. EbuSaris, & E. Titi (Eds.), Misconceptions in mathematics (pp. 122-134). Singapore: Word Scientific Printers.
Brown, D., & Rothery, P. (1993). Models in biology: Mathematics, statistics and computing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Burghardt, D., & Hacker, M (2008). Work in progress - Math infusion in a middle school engineering/technology class. Presented at the 38th Annual IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Saratoga Springs, NY, F2D-7-F2D-8. doi: 10.1109/FIE.2008/4720457
Cantu, P., Phillips, J., & Tholfsen, M. (2009). Three is not a crowd: The pedagogical power of tablet PCs, digital organizers, and digital textbooks in middle school mathematics. In R. Reed, D. Berque, & J. C. Prey (Eds.), The impact of tablet PC's and pen-based tecnology on education: Evidence and outcomes (pp. 21–29). West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press.
Carnine, D., Jones, E. D., & Dixon, R. (1994). MATHEMATICS - EDUCATIONAL-TOOLS FOR DIVERSE LEARNERS. School Psychology Review, 23(3), 406-427.
Carpenter, T. P., Fennema, E., & Franke, M. L. (1996). Cognitively guided instruction: A knowledge base for reform in primary mathematics instruction. Elementary School Journal, 97(1), 3–20. doi: 10.1086/461846
Chan, K. K. (2013). Exploring mathematics teachers' beliefs of using dynamic geometry software in classroom. Proceedings from the Edulearn13: 5th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, 4219–4219.
Chassapis, D. (2007). Integrating the philosophy of mathematics in teacher training courses: A Greek case as an example. In K. Francois, & J. P. Van Bendegem (Eds.), Philisophical dimensions in mathematics education (Vol. 42, pp. 61–79). New York, NY: Springer.
Chen, C.-H., Crockett, M. D., Namikawa, T., Zilimu, J., & Lee, S. H. (2012). Eighth grade mathematics teachers' formative assessment practices in SES-different classrooms: A Taiwan study. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 10(3), 553–579. doi: 10.1007/s10763-011-9299-7
Chen, G., Chiu, M. M., & Wang, Z. (2012). Social metacognition and the creation of correct, new ideas: A statistical discourse analysis of online mathematics discussions. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(3), 868–880. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2011.12.006
Collopy, R. (2003). Curriculum materials as a professional development tool: How a mathematics textbook affected two teachers' learning. Elementary School Journal, 103(3), 287–311. doi: 10.1086/499727
Coriell, J., & Corbett, K. (2013). An innovative approach to secondary mathematics for engineering and science. Presented at the 2013 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Oklahoma City, OK, 922–924. doi: 10.1109/FIE.2013.6684961
Davies, J., & Brember, I. (1999). Standards in mathematics in years 2 and 6: a 9 year cross-sectional study. Educational Review, 51(3), 243–251.
Davis, J., Beck, H., Eagle, S., Othman, S., & Abler, D. (2011). Making the most of partnership: Effectiveness of a collaboratively designed masters degree program for teacher leaders in elementary mathematics and science education. Proceedings from the 4th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Madrid, Spain, 145-150.
Dellyiannis, I., Floros, A., Vlamos, P., Arvanitis, M., & Tanial, T. (2008). Bringing digital multimedia in mathematics education. Proceedings from the 7th European Conference on e-Learning, Cyprus, 93–116.
Desimone, L., Garet, M. S., Birman, B. F., Porter, A., & Yoon, K. S. (2003). Improving teachers' in-service professional development in mathematics and science: The role of postsecondary institutions. Educational Policy, 17(5), 613–649. doi: 10.1177/0895904803256791
Desimone, L. M. (2006). Toward a more refined theory of school effects: A study of the relationship between professional community and the teaching of mathematics in early elementary school. In C. Miskel, & W. Hoy (Eds.), Research and theory in educational administration. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Ding, M., & Carlson, M. A. (2013). Elementary teachers' learning to construct high-quality mathematics lesson plans: A use of the IES recommendations. Elementary School Journal, 113(3), 359–385.
Doganay, A., & Bal, A. P. (2010). The measurement of students' achievement in teaching primary school fifth year mathematics classes. Kuram Ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 10(1), 199–215.
Etxeberria, J., Santiago, K., & Lukas, J. F. (2012). Computer-assisted learning in mathematics. Proceedings from the Inted2012: International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain, 2409–2416.
Fendrichsalowey, G., Buchanan, M., & Drew, C. J. (1982). Mathematics, quantitative and attitudinal measures for elementary-school boys and girls. Psychological Reports, 51(1), 155–162.
Fernandez, C., Valls, J., & Llinares, S. (2010). Mathematics teacher learning in virtual learning environments. Proceedings from the 3rd International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Madrid, Spain, 682–691.
Fischer, U., Moeller, K., Cress, U., & Nuerk, H.-C. (2013). Interventions supporting children's mathematics school success: A meta-analytic review. European Psychologist, 18(2), 89–113. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000141
Fisher, C. W. (1980a). File M2LOGPT1 -- Grade 2 math total A-B time per content (Phase III-A). Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi: 10.3886/icpsr07691
Fisher, C. W. (1980b). File M2LOGPT2 -- Grade 2 math total B-C time per content (Phase III-A). Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi: 10.3886/icpsr07691
Fisher, C. W. (1980c). File M5LOGPT1 -- Grade 5 math total A-B time per content (Phase III-A). Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi: 10.3886/icpsr07691
Fisher, C. W. (1980d). File M5LOGPT2 -- Grade 5 math total B-C time per content (Phase III-A). Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi: 10.3886/icpsr07691
Freeman, B., & Crawford, L. (2008). Creating a middle school mathematics curriculum for English-language learners. Remedial and Special Education, 29(1), 9–19. doi: 10.1177/0741932507309717
Garii, B., & Rule, A. C. (2009). Integrating social justice with mathematics and science: An analysis of student teacher lessons. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(3), 490–499. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2008.11.003
Geiger, V., Goos, M., & Dole, S. (2013). Taking advantage of incidental school events to engage with the applications of mathematics: The case of surviving the reconstruction. In G. A. Stillman, G. Kaiser, W. Blum, & J. P. Brown (Eds.), Teaching mathematical modelling: Connecting to research and practice (pp. 175-184). Netherlands: Springer.
Gerena, L. (2012). Providing literacy strategies to English language learners in urban secondary math and science classes: The Peer Enabled Restructured Classroom (PERC) Model. Proceedings from the 5th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Madrid, Spain, 1187–1194.
Gersten, R., Chard, D. J., Jayanthi, M., Baker, S. K., Morphy, P., & Flojo, J. (2009). Mathematics instruction for students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of instructional components. Review of Educational Research, 79(3), 1202–1242. doi: 10.3102/0034654309334431
Giacardi, L. (2006). From Euclid as textbook to the Giovanni gentile reform (1867-1923): Problems, methods and debates in mathematics teaching in Italy. Paedagogica Historica, 42(4–5), 587–613. doi: 10.1080/00309230600806880
Gibbs, B. G. (2010). Reversing fortunes or content change? Gender gaps in math-related skill throughout childhood. Social Science Research, 39(4), 540–569. doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2010.02.005
Goforth, K., Noltemeyer, A., Patton, J., Bush, K. R., & Bergen, D. (2014). Understanding mathematics achievement: An analysis of the effects of student and family factors. Educational Studies, 40(2), 196–214. doi: 10.1080/03055698.2013.866890
Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. W., Oliver, P. H., & Guerin, D. W. (2007). Multivariate latent change modeling of developmental decline in academic intrinsic math motivation and achievement: Childhood through adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(4), 317–327. doi: 10.1177/0165025407077752
Grant, S. G., Peterson, P. L., & ShojgreenDowner, A. (1996). Learning to teach mathematics in the context of systemic reform. American Educational Research Journal, 33(2), 509–541.
Gregg, J. (1995). Discipline, control, and the school mathematics tradition. Teaching and Teacher Education, 11(6), 579–593. doi: 10.1016/0742-051x(95)00013-a
Gutierrez, R. (2000). Advancing African-American, urban youth in mathematics: Unpacking the success of one math department. American Journal of Education, 109(1), 63–111. doi: 10.1086/444259
Gutierrez, R. (2002). Beyond essentialism: The complexity of language in teaching mathematics to Latina/o students. American Educational Research Journal, 39(4), 1047–1088. doi: 10.3102/000283120390041047
Hansen-Thomas, H. (2009). Reform-oriented mathematics in three 6th grade classes: How teachers draw in ELLs to academic discourse. Journal of Language Identity and Education, 8(2–3), 88–106. doi: 10.1080/15348450902848411
Harcum, P. M., & Harcum, E. R. (1989). Case study: Comprehensive teaching of a twelve-year-old mathematics-phobic ed-Mr Boy. Journal of Human Behavior and Learning, 6(1), 39–43.
Helmane, I. (2011). Aspects of thematic choice within the mathematics based on thematic approach in primary school. Proceedings of the International Scientifical Conference (pp. 169-177). Rezekne: Rezeknes Augstskola.
Helmane, I. (2012). Thematic approach of mathematics textbooks in the primary school. Proceedings fo the International Scientifical Conference (Vol. 1, pp. 65–75). Rezekne: Rezeknes Augstskola.
Henderson, R. W., & Landesman, E. M. (1995). Effects of thematically integrated mathematics instruction on students of Mexican descent. Journal of Educational Research, 88(5), 290–300.
Hess, R. D., Holloway, S. D., Dickson, W. P., & Price, G. G. (1984). Maternal variables as predictors of childrens' school readiness and later achievement in vocabulary and mathematics in 6th grade. Child Development, 55(5), 1902–1912.
Hill, H. C. (2011). The nature and effects of middle school mathematics teacher learning experiences. Teachers College Record, 113(1), 205–234.
Hill, H. C., & Ball, D. L. (2004). Learning mathematics for teaching: Results from California's Mathematics Professional Development Institutes. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 35(5), 330–351.
Hill, H. C., & Lubienski, S. T. (2007). Teachers' mathematics knowledge for teaching and school context - A study of California teachers. Educational Policy, 21(5), 747–768. doi: 10.1177/0895904807307061
Hopkins, M., Spillane, J. P., Jakopovic, P., & Heaton, R. M. (2013). Infrastructure redesign and instructional reform in mathematics: Formal structure and teacher leadership. Elementary School Journal, 114(2), 200–224. doi: 10.1086/671935
Howley, A., Larson, W., Andrianaivo, S., Rhodes, M., & Howley, M. (2007). Standards-based reform of mathematics education in rural high schools. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 22(2), 1–12.
Hughes, G. B. (1999). Facilitating the development of preservice teachers in a climate of reform: Lessons learned from mathematics and assessment reform. Journal of Negro Education, 68(3), 352–365. doi: 10.2307/2668107
Jackson, K., & Wilson, J. (2012). Supporting African American students' learning of mathematics: A problem of practice. Urban Education, 47(2), 354–398. doi: 10.1177/0042085911429083
Jang, S.-J., & Tsai, M.-F. (2012). Exploring the TPACK of Taiwanese elementary mathematics and science teachers with respect to use of interactive whiteboards. Computers & Education, 59(2), 327–338. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.02.003
Jeschke, S., Pfeiffer, O., & Zorn, E.(2011). Work in progress - Engineering math with early bird. Proceeding from the 41st ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Rapid City, USA.
Johnson, W., Nyamekye, F., Chazan, D., & Rosenthal, B. (2013). Teaching with speeches: A black teacher who uses the mathematics classroom to prepare students for life. Teachers College Record, 115(2), 1–26.
Kajetanowicz, P., & Wierzejewski, J.. (2011). Combining various technologies in effective online math instruction - A nationwide secondary level math project. Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, Piestany, Slovakia, 386–389.
Katmada, A., Mavridis, A., & Tsiatsos, T. (2013). Game based learning in mathematics: Teachers' support by a flexible tool. Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Games Based Learning (Vols 1–2, 275–283).
Ke, F. (2013). Computer-game-based tutoring of mathematics. Computers & Education, 60(1), 448–457. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.08.012
Ke, F. (2014). An implementation of design-based learning through creating educational computer games: A case study on mathematics learning during design and computing. Computers & Education, 73, 26–39. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.12.010
Kilic, H. (2010). The nature of preservice mathematics teachers' knowledge of students. Proceedings from the World Conference on Learning, Teaching and Administration Papers, 9. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.292
Kiray, S. A., & Kaptan, F. (2012). The effectiveness of an integrated science and mathematics programme: Science-centred mathematics-assisted integration. Energy Education Science and Technology Part B-Social and Educational Studies, 4(2), 943–956.
Koirala, H. P. (2010). Measuring the effectiveness of a performance-based assessment used in a secondary mathematics teacher preparation program. In M. M. F. Pinto, & T. F. Kawasaki (Eds.), PME 34 Brazil: Proceedings of the 34th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol 3: Mathematics in Different Settings (pp. 185–191).
Konovalova, K. (1998). An approach to ordering the subject matter of a college level course of higher mathematics. Proceedings from the Global Congress on Engineering Education, Krakow, Poland, 134–136.
Koustourakis, G., & Zacharos, K. (2011). Changes in school mathematics knowledge in Greece: A Bernsteinian analysis. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 32(3), 369–387. doi: 10.1080/01425692.2011.559339
Krainer, K. (2006). How can schools put mathematics in their centre? Improvement = content plus community plus context. In J. Novotna, H. Moraova, M. Kratka, & N. Stehlikova (Eds.), PME 30: Proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol 1 (pp. 84-89).
Krause, S., Culbertson, R., Oehrtman, M., & Carlson, M.. (2008). High school teacher change, strategies, and actions in a professional development project connecting mathematics, science, and engineering. Proceedings from the IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, (Vols 1–3, 265–270).
Krawec, J., & Montague, M. (2014). The role of teacher training in cognitive strategy instruction to improve math problem solving. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 29(3), 126–134. doi: 10.1111/ldrp.12034
Krebs, M., Ludwig, M., & Mueller, W. (2010). Learning mathematics using a Wiki. Innovation and Creativity in Education, 2(2), 1469–1476. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.220
Lappan, G., & Ferrini-Mundy, J. (1993). Knowing and doing mathematics - A new vision for middle grades students. Elementary School Journal, 93(5), 625–639. doi: 10.1086/461744
Lewis, P., Noble, S., & Soiffer, N. (2010). Using accessible math textbooks with students who have learning disabilities. Proceedings of the 12th International ACM SIGACCESS conference on computers and accessibility (pp. 139–146). doi: 10.1145/1878803.1878829
Lloyd, G. M. (2007). Strategic compromise - A student teacher's design of kindergarten mathematics instruction in a high-stakes testing climate. Journal of Teacher Education, 58(4), 328–347. doi: 10.1177/0022487107305260
Loewenberg Ball, D., Cohen, D. K., & Rowan, B. (2010a). Cohort A Math Logs - 1st Grade. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi: 10.3886/icpsr26282
Loewenberg Ball, D., Cohen, D. K., & Rowan, B. (2010b). Cohort A Math Logs - 2nd Grade. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi: 10.3886/icpsr26282
Loewenberg Ball, D., Cohen, D. K., & Rowan, B. (2010c). Cohort B Math Logs - 3rd Grade. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi: 10.3886/icpsr26282
Loewenberg Ball, D., Cohen, D. K., & Rowan, B. (2010d). Cohort B Math Logs - 4th Grade. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi: 10.3886/icpsr26282
Loewenberg Ball, D., Cohen, D. K., & Rowan, B. (2010e). Cohort B Math Logs - 5th Grade. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi: 10.3886/icpsr26282
Lubienski, S. T. (2008). On "Gap gazing" in mathematics education: The need for gaps analyses. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 39(4), 350–356.
Lynch, K., & Star, J. R. (2014). Teachers' views about multiple strategies in middle and high school mathematics. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 16(2), 85–108. doi: 10.1080/10986065.2014.889501
Mandeville, G. K., & Liu, Q. D. (1997). The effect of teacher certification and task level on mathematics achievement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13(4), 397–407. doi: 10.1016/s0742-051x(96)00031-5
Mason, D. A., & Good, T. L. (1996). Mathematics instruction in combination and single-grade classes: An exploratory investigation. Teachers College Record, 98(2), 236–265.
Mason, D. A., Schroeter, D. D., Combs, R. K., & Washington, K. (1992). Assigning average-achieving 8th graders to advanced mathematics classes in an urban junior-high. Elementary School Journal, 92(5), 587–599. doi: 10.1086/461708
Mays, H., & Yearwood, J. (2003). Are schools of education failing the tertiary mathematics sector? Proceedings from the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (pp. 110–114). doi: 10.1109/ITCC.2003.1197510
McMeeking, L. B. S., Orsi, R., & Cobb, R. B. (2012). Effects of a teacher professional development program on the mathematics achievement of middle school students. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 43(2), 159–181.
Medina Vidal, F., & Hernandez Gomez, E. (2013). Using a Wiki in mathematics as a beneficial and inclusive element for students with special needs in secondary education. Proceedings from the 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, pp. 1340–1344.
Mercer, C. D., & Miller, S. P. (1992). Teaching students with learning-problems in math to acquire, understand, and apply basic math facts. Remedial and Special Education, 13(3), 19–35.
Mevarech, Z. R., & Kramarski, B. (1997). IMPROVE: A multidimensional method for teaching mathematics in heterogeneous classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 34(2), 365–394. doi: 10.3102/00028312034002365
Monk, D. H., & Rice, J. K. (1997). The distribution of mathematics and science teachers across and within secondary schools. Educational Policy, 11(4), 479–498.
Munter, C. (2014). Developing visions of high-quality mathematics instruction. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 45(5), 584–635.
Ndlovu, M. (2013). Mathematics and science teachers' perceptions of their ctpd and the learner-centredness of their teaching practices: A case study of a professional development initiative in a South African province. Proceedings from the 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, pp. 3130–3138.
Nelson, B. S., & Sassi, A. (2000). Shifting approaches to supervision: The case of mathematics supervision. Educational Administration Quarterly, 36(4), 553–584. doi: 10.1177/00131610021969100
Ng, E. Y. K. (1997). Use of electronic presentation for teaching mathematics. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 5(1), 61–70. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1099-0542(1997)5:1<61::aid-cae6>3.0.co;2-0
Ni, Y.-J., Li, X., Zhou, D., & Li, Q. (2014). Changes in instructional tasks and their influence on classroom discourse in reformed mathematics classrooms of Chinese primary schools. In Y. Li, E. A. Silver, & S. Li (Eds.), Transforming mathematics instruction: Multiple approaches and practices (pp. 217-230). Switzerland: Springer International.
Nolan, K. (2010). Playing the field(s) of mathematics education a teacher educator's journey into pedagogical and paradoxical possibilities. In M. Walshaw (Ed.), Unpacking pedagogy: New perspectives for mathematics (pp. 153–173). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing Inc.
Owens, K. (2014). Diversifying our perspectives on mathematics about space and geometry: An ecocultural approach. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 12(4), 941–974. doi: 10.1007/s10763-013-9441-9
Ozel, Z. E. Y., & Ozel, S. (2013). Mathematics teacher quality: its distribution and relationship with student achievement in Turkey. Asia Pacific Education Review, 14(2), 231–242. doi: 10.1007/s12564-013-9242-4
Ozyildirim, F., Atmaca, S., Aydin, O., & Kaptan, F. (2012). Conformity between the instruction programs: science-technology and mathematics. Proceedings from the 4th World Conference on Educational Sciences, 46, 2140-2147. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.443
Ozyurt, O., Ozyurt, H., Baki, A., Guven, B., & Karal, H. (2012). Evaluation of an adaptive and intelligent educational hypermedia for enhanced individual learning of mathematics: A qualitative study. Expert Systems with Applications, 39(15), 12092–12104. doi: 10.1016/j.eswa.2012.04.018
Palladino, N. (2013). The issue of mathematics textbooks in the correspondence of Giovanni Novi to Enrico Betti during the unification of Italy. Proceedings from the 2013 Asian Conference on the Social Sciences, Vol 3, 123-128. doi: 10.5729/asbs.vol3.123
Panagiotou, E. N. (2011). Using history to teach mathematics: The case of logarithms. Science & Education, 20(1), 1–35. doi: 10.1007/s11191-010-9276-5
Paul, C. S., & Vaidya, S. R. (2014). An urban middle school case study of mathematics achievement. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 12(5), 1241–1260. doi: 10.1007/s10763-013-9453-5
Peake, J. B., King, D. L., & Harder, A. M. (2012). Effects of a summer teacher tour program on agriculture and science teachers' knowledge of applying science, technology and math in research and industry. NACTA Journal, 56(2), 83–87.
Piasta, S. B., Pelatti, C. Y., & Miller, H. L. (2014). Mathematics and science learning opportunities in preschool classrooms. Early Education and Development, 25(4), 445–468. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2013.817753
Pigg, A. E., Waliczek, T. M., & Zajicek, J. M. (2006). Effects of a gardening program on the academic progress of third, fourth, and fifth grade math and science students. Horttechnology, 16(2), 262–264.
Polikoff, M. S. (2012). The redundancy of mathematics instruction in US elementary and middle schools. Elementary School Journal, 113(2), 230–251. doi: 10.1086/667727
Pool, J. L., Carter, G. M., Johnson, E. S., & Carter, D. R. (2013). The use and effectiveness of a targeted math intervention for third graders. Intervention in School and Clinic, 48(4), 210–217. doi: 10.1177/1053451212462882
Porras, B., Cordon, J. A., Olazabal, J. M., Valero, C., Alvarez, E., Bravo, L., . . . Garcia, A. (2008). LEMAT: A project for innovation in teaching mathematics. Retrieved from http://personales.unican.es/porrasb/Art%C3%ADculos/porras-Lemat.pdf
Porres, M., & Meza, G. (2011). A study about the acquisition of the competences of students that are studying mathematics I (Algebra) course at high school level with the support of a technological tool "Practymathe". Proceedings from the 5th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, 148–155.
Porter, A. C., Kirst, M. W., Osthoff, E. J, Smithson, J. L., & Schneider, S. A. (1993). Reform up close: An analysis of high school mathematics and science classrooms. Final report (Report No. ED364429). Madison, Wisconsin: Wisconsin Center for Education Research, School of Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved from ERIC database.
Prawat, R. S., & Jennings, N. (1997). Students as context in mathematics reform: The story of two upper-elementary teachers. Elementary School Journal, 97(3), 251–270. doi: 10.1086/461864
Puccinelli, M., Ogele, E., Kasper, S., & West, L. (2012). Incorporating mathematics principles into high school biology experiments using GFP denaturation studies [Abstract]. FASEB Journal, 26(1), Supplement 620.7.
Rauner, R. R., Walters, R. W., Avery, M., & Wanser, T. J. (2013). Evidence that aerobic fitness is more salient than weight status in predicting standardized math and reading outcomes in fourth-through eighth-grade students. Journal of Pediatrics, 163(2), 344–348. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.01.006
Saleh, F., Rahman, S. A., & Saleh, S. (2010). Pedagogical negotiations between conventional and innovative strategies in teaching KBSR Mathematics: The InSPIRE Project. Proceedings from the International Conference on Mathematics Education Research, Vol. 8, 152–157. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.021
Shamma, A. K., & Flake, J. L. (1990). Logo aided modeling in secondary-school mathematics - The modeling of elementary statistical experiments. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 14, 166–171. doi: 10.1016/0895-7177(90)90168-m
St. Clair, S. O., & Gardner, D. (2011). An innovative and collaborative community college and high school algebra project: Contextualizing career technical education (CTE) in math. Proceedings from the 4th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, 2079–2088.
Supap, W., Naruedomkul, K., & Cercone, N. (2013). MATHMASTER: An alternative math word problems translation. In N. Cercone & K. Naruedomkul (Eds.), Computational approaches to assistive technologies for people with disabilities (Vol. 253, pp. 109-130). Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.
Supekar, K., Swigart, A. G., Tenison, C., Jolles, D. D., Rosenberg-Lee, M., Fuchs, L., & Menon, V. (2013). Neural predictors of individual differences in response to math tutoring in primary-grade school children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(20), 8230–8235. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1222154110
Tajudin, N. A. M., & Abd Kadir, N. Z. (2014). Technological pedagogical content knowledge and teaching practice of mathematics trainee teachers. Proceedings of the 21st National Symposium on Mathematical Sciences: Germination of Mathematical Sciences Education and Research Towards Global Sustainability, 1605, 734–739. doi: 10.1063/1.4887681
Thomas, M. O. J. (2006). Teachers using computers in mathematics: A longitudinal study. In J. Novotna, H. Moraova, M. Kratka, & N. Stehlikova (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 5 (pp. 265-272).
Yilmaz, C., Altun, S. A., & Olkun, S. (2010). Factors affecting students' attidude towards Math: ABC theory and its reflection on practice. Innovation and Creativity in Education, 2(2), 4502–4506. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.720